” Strategy is defined as determining the main long-term goals and objectives of the company, and approved of actions and allocation of resources necessary to carry out the objectives ” Chandler (1962)
Strategy is a process and could be considered in less than three stages. These are: strategic analysis; This is the stage where a diagnosis the strategist identifies the opportunities threats, strengths and weaknesses in the environment; policy formulation stage, where the choice is made and the policy implementation level is the level where the technology is translated into action.
for policy or policy implementation is defined as “a translation of the policy into operational planning with planning and design, resource planning and management policy change”.
Article definition, it becomes obvious that policy implementation is fairly complex. The successful implementation of the strategy would be how well the various elements of its implementation are successfully integrated and interact.
To identify significant problems encountered in implementing the new policy in business, a critical look at the components to be used in the implementation of the strategy would be a good pointer. These are considered below: Planning and Design; and policy implementation; translating strategy into organizational action by using the structure of the organization will also depend on the type of structure used by the company. This is so because the needs of multinational organization are different from those of small business. It is also possible that the extent of devolution or centralization can influence strategy implementation
For example, by using a matrix structure which often takes the form of product and geographical divisions or functional and divisional structures operating in tandem. the time it takes decisions to be made may be much longer than in more traditional structures. The planning and design element of the program execution is about how human resources in the organization are mobilized and organized to bring about policy. The main significant problems encountered through use of the organizational aspects of policy implementation is the fact that most employees can leave the company if they feel they are “used” in fact if they are not motivated. This is particularly so where the director or directors proposes policies on employees.
Another problem encountered here is the way how information is passed down or up the ladder. If there is a blockage that prevents the flow of information process means that decisions would be taken on the basis of outdated or obsolete information. This can be solved by devolving the central command to facilitate the flow of information between all the rank and file especially in the implementation of a new strategy in business. Recognition will be given the structure and design is set up where operational and strategic decisions are made, there should be compromise if implementing a new strategy will be successful in any business
The next element of implementation -. Resource Planning sets out the resources and skills needed to create. It focuses on the analysis of the resources needed and how those resources will be applied and managed to create the skills required to perform procedures successfully. This resource configuration is subject to: protect the unique resources, ie where policy depends on the specifics of a particular resource such as patents; it must be protected; by legal means; fitting resources together, (mix resources to create competence) business process re-engineering (to create a dynamic improvement in performance) and make use of the experience of learning and improving continuously improve performance.
One of the major problems of policy implementation because of resource planning is the failure to translate statements of strategic purposes, such as to gain market share in the important factors that will make the purpose achievable and ultimately achieved. This Success Factor analysis can be engaged to start in resource planning. For example, a specific timetable might be needed for the organization to try to introduce, say a new product for Christmas. A detailed examination of the timing needs to be done if production and marketing it would be well; and the allocation of funds for this company. The problem here is that because no uniformity in times of need for various activities, it is difficult to know where to start.
Scholes et Johnson (1999) writes that the circularity of the problem is quite usual in developing a plan of action, and raise questions about where to start – with a market forecast, liquid level a lack of funds, production-level constraints, or what? The answer is that it may not matter too much where the starting point, where it will be reset and molded several times. A useful guideline is to enter the problem through what appears to be a major change area. Establishment plan a new strategy of growth may well start with the assessment of market opportunities. Anyone can start a new company will start with a realistic assessment of how much money they might have available.
Critical path analysis is recommended methods have detailed plans for implementation. Another problem is the proposed conflict because among departments in allocating funds especially where money is involved in the implementation of the new policy.
The next part of the implementation level of the program’s management policy change. It is generally accepted that strategic change based on four criteria:
1.There is a good view of the companies strategy to follow.
2.Change will not occur unless there is a commitment to change
3. The method to control the direction of change is likely to be contextual.
4.Change must deal with a major impact on the ideological and cultural web on, the strategy followed by the establishment of
There are two types of change -. Incremental change-that just based on the skills, habits and attitudes in the organization, so that change is efficient and likely to win their support, and transformation – which requires the company to change the ideology of his time. It could be a change of life (” way to do things here. ” It could also be a change in policy that will require changes. Although the implementation of the policy changing elements structural organization, monitoring and resource planning to make an impact from day to day activities of members in the company. behaviors and attitudes have not changed
To effect a successful strategy implementation, management must also adopt appropriate styles to manage the change process. For example, that there is a problem in change management based on incorrect information or lack of information, education and communication style will be used. This includes an explanation of the reasons for and the resulting policy changes. Collaboration or participation involving those affected by policy changes in the identification of strategic issues ;. intervention, policy and constraints style
Associated with management policy change is a problem of change. It will be quite difficult to manage the changes that come about in implementation. For example, some managers will lose their status because of changes (delayering) others could be terminated due to non Upsizing others might still lose the title or position as they cherish most for business process re-engineering. This will demotivate staff and organization can lose qualified staff. Others may require retraining to take up or off if they are to be in an institution. This kind of problem can be avoided if management agrees participatory leadership style and get the staff involve from the formulation of policy implementation levels.
Finally, it may be desirable to point out that as many definitions of strategy, execution style may vary and so may its attendant problems and solutions. Nevertheless, where implementation involves controlling other behaviors and sometimes perceptions and culture, most of the problems were related to human and probably possible solutions would be subject to management style and leadership behavior in terms of supply and distribution of resources.